Thursday, December 1, 2011

1 Timothy 3:1-7 Pastorial Qualifications

This is a faithful saying: If a man desires the position of a bishop, he desires a good work. 2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, temperate, sober-minded, of good behavior, hospitable, able to teach; 3 not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for money, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous; 4 one who rules his own house well, having his children in submission with all reverence 5 (for if a man does not know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the church of God?); 6 not a  novice, lest being puffed up with pride he fall into the same condemnation as the devil. 7 Moreover he must have a good testimony among those who are outside, lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

The Apostle Paul in this section presents to us the position of a episkopos. Historically this word has been rendered in English as Bishop (see KJ; NKJ; ASV; RSV; NRSV; NAB etc.); an old English title which carries with it an ecclesiastical burden if understood strictly that way, and thus is generally not conducive in conveying the words true meaning for most of us today. Increasingly then it has been rendered more literally as an Overseer (see NIV; ESV; NASB 1995; Net Bible etc.). A word which touches on the fundamental nature of the position, but in no way fully defines it (See Acts 20:28; Php. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:1, 2; Titus 1:7; 1 Peter 2:25 for it's Scriptural usages). That said it is a multifaceted position requiring both the oversight of, and in a general sense, service towards the whole congregation. All of which is to to be exercised through Spirit giftedness, guidance, love and of course wisdom, knowledge and understanding. Thus it requires both Spirit leadership abilities as well as a heart of service and compassion in watching over and caring for the well being of all in the congregation (Consider Jesus' exhortations in John 13:12-17 and 21:15-17). And so Godly leaders must not only set the example of true Godliness, love, and integrity (Phil 3:17-21; 2 Thess 3:6-10; 1 Tim 4:12; Titus 2:7 etc.). But they also must have a deep desire to help others, to take burdens away (Consider Matt. 11:28-30; 23:1-11; Mark 10:42-45; Acts 20:28-35; 1 Thess. 2:4-9; 1 Peter 5:1-4 etc.). Therefore it is a position of great responsibility and trust, requiring wisdom, humility and love in guiding the churches members as Christ's shepherd, as well directing the activities and affairs within it. The Overseer then must be an individual who is mature in his faith and life (but not necessarily one who is merely aged, consider Job 32:8-9). One who has a heart of love for God's people (in fact all people), and has the Spirit giftedness and maturity that lends itself to the natural outworking of the position. In essence it is a position of oversight involving the local assembly, it's people and it's activities. As well it has within it the oversight, I.e. the preaching and teaching of the Word of God, and thus it parallels our understanding of the Pastor (Eph. 4:11-12).

Commentary (vs. 1-7)
The position of a Pastor is a desirable work for a believer to aspire to, however because it places one center stage as a preacher and example of the reality of Jesus Christ's Person and Life, his character and life must reflect His as well. Therefore there are prerequisites. The first is that a Pastor must be blameless. (Note: The word used here appears only in this epistle, see 1 Tim. 3:2; 5:7; 6:14 and is used to exhort obedience to the Apostle's commandments so that we all might be blameless). That said, this does not mean sinless in the sense of having no previous history; otherwise the Apostle Paul would’ve been disqualified! It means one's life, now as a disciple of Jesus Christ, is being lived in such a matter as to be above reproach; both inside and outside of the house of faith. Therefore a potential candidate must be living a morally blameless and ethically principled life. For if his integrity can be justly called into question then he should not even be considered. Therefore he does not live by pretense, or lie when scrutinized (whether from inside or outside of the house of faith) to preserve himself or his reputation from whatever wrongs he has committed. Instead he owns up to his wrongs, makes amends where appropriate to do so, and moves forward by the grace of God (Matt. 5:17-26).  A Pastoral candidate then must have due regard for the ordinary standards of decency in his daily life, while holding fast to Biblical norms, were norms of decency; morality and integrity are absent in the society or culture in which he is called to live out the faith. This qualification is given first, and it's no surprise, since the Pastor is to not only teach the faith, but again he is to model the faith to all; both inside and outside of the house of faith. Therefore the example he sets (whether good or bad) in all likelihood will influence the behavior of believer and unbeliever alike.

A Pastor must be the husband of one wife. That is if married he must be a faithful man, not divorced and remarried (Matt. 19:3-10). This though is understood in light of his confession of faith in Jesus Christ. Whatever happened before hand should not now be charged against him (See 1 Cor. 6:9-11). Same if he divorced his wife as a believer for sexual immorality on her part, this would not disqualify him (Matt. 19:9). Or if his wife divorced him for no legitimate grounds, he would still be qualified (1 Cor. 7:10-16). A single man can certainly be a Pastor as the Apostle Paul was single and desired that more were (1 Cor. 7:7). Yet since most men are not gifted that way (Matt. 19:11-12) it is better for most men to marry then to burn in lust.

A Pastor must be temperate. That is one who has clarity of mind, good judgment; one who lives a well ordered and balanced life. Therefore not a man given to extremes in opinions or behaviour, but rather one who rules over his own person and passions, i.e. self-controlled, disciplined (1 Cor. 9:25-27). In a narrower sense he must be self-restrained in his use of alcohol (if at all), sober (Titus 2:2). The word used here is the antonym of the word that is used to describe intoxication. Linked with this word is the notion of being alert, watchful, vigilant. He must then be keenly aware of the spiritual and moral dangers inherent to the position, and all believers in general will face (Consider 1 Peter 5:8).

A Pastor must be sober-minded. A Pastoral candidate should not only be temperate in his lifestyle, he should be completely sound in his thinking, prudent. One who understands the realities of living in a fallen world; but he does not conform himself to them (Rom. 12:2). Instead he moderates his thoughts and passions and remains sensible in his estimations of himself and others; thus he exercises self control and prudence in his own life’s affairs, and in his dealings with others. In other words he is a man who lives wisely (Col. 4:5-6).

A Pastor must be of good behaviour. That is honourable, virtuous. The question then must be asked; how does he conduct himself not only in the church, but also in the world, the sphere where ones obedience to God is tested and often formed. For a Pastor (like all believers) is never called to isolation from the world, but transformation within it. For though we live in the world we are not to be governed by it (Rom. 12:1-2; 1 Cor. 7:31; 1 John 2:11-12).

A Pastor must be hospitable. Hospitality is to be the mark of every believer (Rom. 12:13; 1 Peter 4:9). The word here means to be fond of guests, to love to entertain etc. In the early church hospitality was vitally important since survival often depended on it (Heb. 13:2). In fact widows who supposed to receive support from the church were to have been hospitable towards other believers themselves (1 Tim. 5:10). Therefore a warm and friendly church begins with us all learning to obey Jesus’ commandment of not only greeting brethren, but all people (Matt. 5:47). Thus if a man aspires to be a Pastor he must not show partiality, or be biased, or racist against anyone, but he must be a man of reconciliation towards all (Acts 10:34; Eph. 2:11-22).

A Pastor must be able to teach. Since the position of Pastor is a teaching position a pastoral candidate must not only know the Scriptures he must also be able to instruct others in them. Thus the Spirit gift of teaching is fundamental to being qualified for this position.

A Pastor must not be given to wine. That is a Pastor cannot be given to vices, for he must exemplify sound judgment and self-control as a model for others to emulate (Heb. 13:7).

A Pastor must not be violent. That is not a man who settles disputes with his fists. If a man aspires to be a Pastor he cannot settle disputes or express his anger through violence or force (Titus 1:7).

A Pastor must not be greedy for money (1 Peter 5:2). In this the Lord Jesus Christ warns, "No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be loyal to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." Matt 6:24 Therefore if a man is more concerned about his remuneration then serving Christ he's not a good candidate (See 1 Tim. 6:5; 10). The Apostle Paul said of himself and his ministry team "For we are not, as so many, peddling the word of God; but as of sincerity, but as from God, we speak in the sight of God in Christ." 2 Cor 2:17

A Pastor must be gentle. Given the nature of the position, as well as the variety of people and problems he will encounter, an insensitive man should not even be considered a Pastoral candidate. The Lord Jesus pronounces His blessing on the meek (Matt. 5:5). Thus gentleness is a fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:23), as well as an attribute we are to pursue (1 Tim. 6:11). The Apostle James wrote, “…Wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, willing to yield, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality and without hypocrisy.” James 3:17 Now gentleness is the manner men charged with the oversight of God’s people are to use in restoring those who fall into sin (1 Cor. 4:21; Gal. 6:1). Or when correcting those who are in opposition, (2 Tim. 2:25-26). For it is this demeanour that best represents Jesus Christ (Matt. 11:29) and the reconciliation He offers to all (Titus 3:2).

A Pastor must not be quarrelsome. A Pastor must not be a man who is quarrelsome (for even in defending the faith this can be done without being contentious). Therefore he must not be easily provoked (1 Cor. 13:4-5). Instead he must be longsuffering towards all (1 Thess. 5:14). For if a man cannot control his temper (Prov. 16:32; 25:28; Ecc. 7:9) he cannot be a Pastor (Titus 1:7). Proverbs says: “He who has knowledge spares his words, And a man of understanding is of a calm spirit.” Prov. 17:27

A Pastor must not be covetous. The word the Apostle Paul uses here is the word used in Hebrews 13:5 commending us all to be content with what we have. For the many warnings in the Scriptures about covetousness (Luke 12:15-21) as well as the severe judgments against it (Jer. 6:13; 8:10 etc.) make this an important aspect that must not be overlooked when accessing a mans person and character (Consider Exodus 18:21; 20:17; Eph. 5:5). Now covetousness is grave evil because it seduces men into justifying great evils in their desires to acquire what is not theirs (consider Micah 2:2). Therefore like being greedy for money; covetousness is a mark of false teachers and prophets ().

Pastor must rule his own household well. The reason is given: “…for if a man does not know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the church of God?” As the families head a man has many responsibilities; to provide a safe and secure environment for his family, to love and nurture them; to teach and guide them; to discipline and restore them. Therefore if a man cannot manage his own household how will he fair in managing the church of God?

A Pastor must not be a novice. That is, new to the faith, newly baptized, not young in years (See 1 Tim. 4:12). For a new convert who is thrust into a leadership position can become puffed up with pride and fall into the same condemnation as the devil. That is become independent of God. The examples of King Saul who was suddenly exalted as Israel’s King but soon stumbled (1 Sam. 15:1-35), and King David though anointed very young, but went through years of trials before God raised him up, is a lesson for us to heed.

A Pastor must have a good testimony among those who are outside the household of faith. “Lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.” Again if his life inside or outside of the house of faith can be justly called into question then he is disqualified. Since believers are called to live lives of transparency, not duplicity (Matt. 5:16).

Additional Word Study Stuff
There are several other words used to denote church leadership in the N.T. And these words are often used interchangeably to describe the same basic position, and or the function of it. The most frequently used word is presbuteros (67x), an elder by reason of age, or by designation, it is one who holds an authoritative position as a ruling elder, or in certain contexts is both. In the N.T. it is first used regarding Jewish ruling elders in the gospel, then as a natural extension elders in the church to designate it's leaders (See Acts 11:30; 14:23; 15:2, 4, 6, 22-23; 16:4; 21:18; 1 Tim. 5:17, 19; Titus 1:5; James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:1, 5; 2 John 1; 3 John 1 etc.). Now it is very important too note that this word is used in Acts 20:17 to describe the church leaders whom the Apostle Paul later says in Acts 20:28 are the Holy Spirit appointed overseers (i.e. the same word used in 1 Tim. 3:1) of the churches there. Generally then there is no tangible distinction to be made between them in terms of a church office. Same thing in Titus 1:5, 7 where again the Apostle Paul is setting forth the qualifications for the overseer/Pastor position. There he interchangeably uses presbuteros (i.e. elder, vs. 5) with the position of overseer/Pastor episkopos in vs. 7; with the masculine form of the word being used in 1 Tim. 3:1, which is also used in 1 Tim. 3:2 regarding the same position. Therefore trying to make strict distinctions between these words usage in regards to church leadership positions in the N.T. is simply being unnecessarily divisive. The only clear distinction in leadership positions regarding church oversight and service are that of Pastor's/Overseer's and deacons. Elders then may serve as either pastors, deacons, or simply elders (in some other capacity) in the church.

Now regarding presbuteros as an indication of ones age, this word is used six times. First In Jesus' parable to designate the prodigal son's older brother in Luke 15:25. Then in John 8:9 of the eldest first putting down their stones and walking away, after Jesus wisely thwarts the Pharisees attempt to stone a women caught in adultery. In Acts 2:17 it is used of the Scriptures fulfillment regarding the prophet Joel having stated that "your old men will dream dreams." In 1 Tim. 5:1-2 the Apostle Paul uses it as an adjective in commanding Timothy to treat the older men with respect and the older women in the church as he would his own mother. It is used in Hebrews 11:2 to refer to the Old Covenant elders receiving a good testimony by their exemplified faith. Finally in 1 Peter 5:1, 5 it is used in exhorting the church elders to shepherd God's people willingly and with integrity; then in verse five of commanding young people to submit themselves to their elders. Outside of those usages it is always used of ruling male elders, or elders in Israel, or elders in the church (Matt. 15:2; 16:21; Acts 4:5; 8, 23; 6:12; Heb. 11:2 etc.). Or in a unique way in the Book of Revelations of the twenty four elders around the throne of God (Rev. 4:4, 10; 5:5, 6, 8; 11, 14; 7:11, 13; 11:16, 14:3; 19:4). Note: there is no N.T. use of this word designating a person of the female gender holding an authoritative position as a ruling elder over men, either in Israel or the church. Woman often served as elders over other woman, both in Israel and in the church, but never as legitimate ruling elders over men, for too do so would deny the Divine principal laid out in (1 Cor 11:3).

Linked to this is presbyterion (3x). It refers to a ruling council, or a body of ruling elders. It first appears in the N.T. in Luke 22:66 regarding the Jewish elders who sat or governed in the Sanhedrin council. The Apostle Paul uses it in Acts 22:5 to describe the same ruling council of Jewish elders who authorized him to arrest and imprison believers before his conversion to Christ. The Apostle Paul later uses it in a church governance sense in 1 Tim. 4:14 to exhort Timothy onto ministry and service, saying: "Do not neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy with the laying on of the hands of the eldership." (This was a body of men who were Timothy's elders in regards too their service, or age, in the church and ministry). Now there are two related nouns in the N.T. designating either a man or a woman as an elder strictly by reason of age. Regarding men the noun is presbutes (3x). It first appears in Luke 1:18 where Zacharias express doubt to Gabriel the angel as to how his wife Elizabeth can bear a son, saying; "How shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years." The Apostle Paul uses this word in Titus 2:2 exhorting "that the older men be sober, reverent, temperate, sound in faith, in love, in patience." Finally in Philemon 9 the Apostle Paul uses it to identify himself as "Paul, the aged." Now where the Apostle John in his epistles refers to himself as an elder, he uses presbutero. And thus he is not referring strictly to his age; but rather his standing as an elder in the church (See 2 John 1; 3 John 1).
While the noun used to describe an elderly female person is presbutis (1x) it is found in Titus 2:3 where the Apostle Paul commands that "the older women likewise, that they be reverent in behavior, not slanderers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things— (teachers in the sense that instruct the younger women in virtues of Godliness, (see Titus 2:4-5). There is one other related noun
presbeia (2x); a delegate, ambassador or authorized representative. It is used by Jesus in two of His Kingdom parables. First in Luke 14:32 then in 19:14, being translated delegation by NKJ and NIV respectively in both. It is not used of church leadership in the N.T. but only metaphorically of our need to completely surrender of lives to Jesus Christ to be His disciple (Luke 14:32). Then of those who would not have Christ rule over them (Luke 19:14); either Israel the nation or the individual (whether Jew or Gentile) can be applied since Jesus never spoke a parable that was not encompassing of all peoples, at all times. Beyond that there is a couple of related verbs presbeuo (2x) to be a representative or ambassador, it relates to the previous noun and is used exclusively by the Apostle Paul in being an ambassador for Christ (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph. 6:20). Regarding active leadership in the church or home there is proistamai, proistēmi to lead, rule, be over, also guide, direct, i.e. influence into a right course of living; (Rom. 12:8; 1 Thess. 5:12; 1 Tim. 3:4, 5, 12; 5:17); again not used of women (or wives) ruling over men (or their husbands) in the home or church; but it is used of all believers in Titus 3:8, 14 in commanding us all to strive to maintain, or of our lives being devoted to good works; translated maintain in the NKJ and devoted in the NIV.  
One more related noun needs to be discussed and it is kybernēsis (1x), it literally refers to the piloting of a ship. TDNTA gives this as a brief definition "to steer" then "to rule". In a Christian context it refers to the Spirit given gift of administration (1 Cor. 12:28). And though a gift of the Spirit for governance, it is not a church office per-say (though it does have a hierarchical position in it's functioning in the Body). And so it is Spirit endowment through which the Lord Jesus Christ guides or steers His church through His Spirit selected and endowed leadership.

There are two other very important words regarding church leadership. The first is a verb hēgeomai (28x), the plural form is found in three important contexts that directly relate to church leadership (See Heb. 13:7; 17, 24). In Hebrews 13:7 it is used to exhort believers to "Remember those who rule over you, who have spoken the word of God to you, whose faith follow, considering the outcome of their conduct." The NIV gives the introductory statement as simply: "remember your leaders" with everything else akin to the NKJ.
Two things are readily apparent. It is those who have spoken (or preached) the Word of God to believers that are their leaders. Thus Holy Spirit speaking gifts that bring to light the message of the gospel and or the Word of God are the priority in the church. That is the heart of the Apostle Paul's reasoning in 1 Cor. 14 about tongues speaking and prophesy and their hierarchal order given in 1 Cor. 12:28-31. Therefore Spirit gifting of an apostle, prophet, teacher, evangelist, pastor; by default placed one into a category of Christian leadership (Rom. 12:6-8; 1 Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11 etc.). With Spirit gifts like wisdom, knowledge, discernment, exhortation and encouragement taking a high place as complementary gifts to the others (1 Cor. 12:8). Now these Spirit gifts are not given according to one's skill, training, education, experience, or even the will of man. But rather according to the Lord Jesus Christ who in accord with the Holy Spirit gives them according to His will (1 Cor. 12:11). And thus through them He guides and directs and equips the Body's members for His service. Now being Spirit equipped to lead, and living a lifestyle that qualifies one to lead or shepherd in the church community are not mutually exclusive ideas. That is why we have the Pastoral/Overseer qualifications given to us in 1 Tim. 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9. For though a man has been Spirit gifted and desires to serve the Lord and His people he must have his life ordered accordingly to be qualified for Christ's service in that crucial capacity. That said we are also exhorted in Hebrews 13:7 to remember (lit. to recall over and over again in ones mind) those who rule over us, who have spoken the word of God to us, whose faith we are to follow. For Jesus Christ's true shepherds inevitably strive to live Godly and sacrificial lives, for the benefit and blessing of others. Therefore we are to consider the outcome of their conduct and follow it when it is just and sound. Because all who order their lives aright here and now, are qualifying themselves not only for greater fruitfulness in this life (2 Peter 1:5-8), but they are preparing themselves for the Lord Jesus Christ at His judgment when He will reward each person according to their works and their ways. That is why we are told Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever. Lest we forget that we are all accountable to Him according to His commandments and revelation given us in the Word of God. Now the next occurrence of hēgeomai is in Hebrew 13:17 which states: "Obey those who rule over you, and be submissive, for they watch out for your souls, as those who must give account. Let them do so with joy and not with grief, for that would be unprofitable for you."
So first were exhorted to remember those who rule over us; so that we might emulate their conduct and faith when it is sound to do so. Then we are commanded to obey them, to be submissive, (this obviously being linked to their own obedience to the word of God; for obeying someone who does not seek to live by the Scriptures would be not only foolish, but very likely perilous as well (see 2 Cor. 11:19-21). Again Jesus Christ's Shepherds are to care about the people they lead (consider Acts 20:17-38; 2 Cor. 11:28-29). If they don't, they're not His; or they're not qualified, nor fit to be leading His own (Consider Ezekiel 34:1-31; John 10:11-14). For Jesus Christ's shepherds have His heart for His people and thus watch out for our souls, as men who must give an account to the One who appointed them to His service and our oversight (Consider John 21:15-17). Thus they are commanded to do so with joy and not as some sort of grudging obligation; for if a man cannot lead God's people in joy, then he should not be leading them at all. The finial occurrence of hēgeomai that we are going to look at is at the end of the chapter, in Heb. 13:24. And it ends on a hospitable and happy note exhorting all believers to "Greet all those who rule over you, and all the saints" Thus we are to greet our leaders (just as they are to greet us) and all believers and visitors. A common courtesy that is often overlooked within churches but needs too be preached and practiced by us all (consider Matt 5:47 ). Therefore though there is a distinction made between church leaders (i.e. those who rule over us) and brethren these distinctions (or any other distinctions) should not be over emphasized or stressed. For ultimately we are all equal brethren (Matt 23:8; Gal 3:26-29) and so we are to be governed by love towards each other which is an undeniable testimony of our love for God (John 13:35). Now the final word that will be briefly looked at here regarding church leadership is an important one, it is poimēn (18x) it is the word translated Shepherd/shepherd in the N.T, and in one context Pastors (Eph. 4:11). For all its N.T. usages see Matt. 9:36; 25:32; 26:31; Mark 6:34; 14:27; Luke 2:8, 15, 18, 20; John 10:2, 11, 12, 14, 16; Eph. 4:11; Heb. 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25) 18x.

 Note: This section is still in the process of being finished and edited

Word Studies
episkopos, Overseer, bishop, overseers, Str 1985, GK 2176; TDNT 2.608; LN 35.43; (Acts 20:28; Philip 1:1; 1 Tim 3:2; Titus 1:7; 1 Peter 2:25) 5x
presbeia  a delegation; Str 4242; GK 4561; LN 37.87 (Luke 14:32; 19:14) 2x
presbeuo, ambassador, ambassadors (vb.), Str 4243; GK 4563; TDNT 6:681; TDNTA 931; LN 37.88; (2 Cor 5:20; Eph 6:20) 2x
presbyterion, elders, council, eldership, Str 4244; GK 4564; TDNT 6.651; LN 11:83; (Luke 22:66; Acts 22:5; 1 Tim 4:14) 3x
presbuteros elder, elders, Str 4245; GK4565; TDNT 6:651; TDNTA 931; LN 9:31; 53.77; 67.27; 67.102; always translated elder, elders in the NKJ except in Luke 15:25 (older); Acts 2:17 (old men); 1 Tim 5:1-2 (older man; older women) 67x
presbutes, old man; older men; aged; Str 4246; GK 4562; TDNT 6.683; (Luke 1:18; Titus 2:2; Philemon 9) 3x
presbutis, older woman; Str 4247, GK 4567; LN 9.67; (Titus 2:3) 1x
proistamai, proistēmi leads; over; rule; rules; ruling; maintain; Str 4292; GK 4613; TDNT 6.700; LN 35:12; 36:1; 68.67; (Rom. 12:8; 1 Thess. 5:12; 1 Tim. 3:4, 5, 12; 5:17; Titus 3:8, 14) 8x
kybernēsis, administration; Str 2941; GK 3236; TDNT 3.1035; TDNTA 486; LN 36.3 (1 Cor 12:28) 1x hēgeomai, Ruler; governs; governor; chief speaker; leadingthink; thought; esteem; consider; considered; count; counted; judged; esteeming; rule; over; Str 2233; GK 2206; 2241; TDNT 2.907; TDNTA 303; LN 31.1; verses regarding governance; leadership (Matt 2:6; Luke 22:26; Acts 7:10; 14:12; 15:22; 1 Tim 1:12; Heb 13:7, 17, 24) 28xpoimēn, Shepherd, shepherd; pastors Str 4166; GK 4478; TDNT 6.485; TDNTA 901; LN 44.4; 53.72 (Matt. 9:36; 25:32; 26:31; Mark 6:34; 14:27; Luke 2:8, 15, 18, 20; John 10:2, 11, 12, 14, 16; Eph. 4:11; Heb. 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25) 18x

Str: Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon. Strong, James. Bellingham, WA.
GK: Goodrick-Kohlenberger
TDNT: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Kittel, Gerhard, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964–.
TDNTA: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged Edition. Kittel, Gerhard, Gerhard Friedrich, and Geoffrey William Bromiley. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
LN: Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996.

Scripture Quotations
The New King James Version. Nashville : Thomas Nelson, 1982

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